Longitudinal Trajectories of Reading and Mathematics Achievement for Students With Learning Disabilities

Richard E. Mattison, Adrienne D. Woods, Paul L. Morgan, George Farkas, Marianne M. Hillemeier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


We examined to what extent subgroups of students identified with learning disabilities (LDs; N = 630) in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998 to 1999 (ECLS-K): 1998 national longitudinal study displayed heterogeneity in longitudinal profiles of reading and mathematics achievement from first to eighth grades. Multivariate growth mixture modeling yielded four classes of combined reading and mathematics trajectories for students with LD. The largest class of students with LD (Class 2, 54.3%) showed mean T-scores for both achievement domains that averaged about 1 SD below the mean, with modest decline over time. Almost a quarter of the sample (Class 1, 22.3%) displayed mean T-scores in both achievement areas near the peer-normed average; these students were mostly White, from higher socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds, and had experienced earlier identification as having an LD as well as shorter duration of LD service. Classifying heterogeneity in longitudinal trajectories of both achievement areas shows promise to better understand the educational needs of students identified with an LD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)132-144
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Learning Disabilities
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Health(social science)
  • Education
  • General Health Professions


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