Lychee surface defect detection based on deep convolutional neural networks with GAN-based data augmentation

Chenglong Wang, Zhifeng Xiao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


The performance of fruit surface defect detection is easily affected by factors such as noisy background and foliage occlusion. In this study, we choose lychee as a fruit type to investigate its surface quality. Lychees are hard to preserve and have to be stored at low temperatures to keep fresh. Additionally, the surface of lychees is subject to scratches and cracks during harvesting/processing. To explore the feasibility of the automation of defective surface detection for lychees, we build a dataset with 3743 samples divided into three categories, namely, mature, defects, and rot. The original dataset suffers an imbalanced distribution issue. To address it, we adopt a transformer-based generative adversarial network (GAN) as a means of data augmentation that can effectively enhance the original training set with more and diverse samples to rebalance the three categories. In addition, we investigate three deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) models, including SSD-MobileNet V2, Faster RCNN-ResNet50, and Faster RCNN-Inception-ResNet V2, trained under different settings for an extensive comparison study. The results show that all three models demonstrate consistent performance gains in mean average precision (mAP), with the application of GAN-based augmenta-tion. The rebalanced dataset also reduces the inter-category discrepancy, allowing a DCNN model to be trained equally across categories. In addition, the qualitative results show that models trained under the augmented setting can better identify the critical regions and the object boundary, leading to gains in mAP. Lastly, we conclude that the most cost-effective model, SSD-MobileNet V2, presents a comparable mAP (91.81%) and a superior inference speed (102 FPS), suitable for real-time detection in industrial-level applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1500
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Agronomy and Crop Science


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