Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) measurements of isolated wakes generated by wind turbines installed at an onshore wind farm are leveraged to characterize the variability of the wake mean velocity and turbulence intensity during typical operations, which encompass a breadth of atmospheric stability regimes and rotor thrust coefficients. The LiDAR measurements are clustered through the k-means algorithm, which enables identifying the most representative realizations of wind turbine wakes while avoiding the imposition of thresholds for the various wind and turbine parameters. Considering the large number of LiDAR samples collected to probe the wake velocity field, the dimensionality of the experimental dataset is reduced by projecting the LiDAR data on an intelligently truncated basis obtained with the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The coefficients of only five physics-informed POD modes are then injected in the k-means algorithm for clustering the LiDAR dataset. The analysis of the clustered LiDAR data and the associated supervisory control and data acquisition and meteorological data enables the study of the variability of the wake velocity deficit, wake extent, and wake-added turbulence intensity for different thrust coefficients of the turbine rotor and regimes of atmospheric stability. Furthermore, the cluster analysis of the LiDAR data allows for the identification of systematic off-design operations with a certain yaw misalignment of the turbine rotor with the mean wind direction.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment