Manifesting destiny: Re/presentations of indigenous peoples in K-12 U.S. History standards

Sarah B. Shear, Ryan T. Knowles, Gregory J. Soden, Antonio J. Castro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

138 Citations (SciVal)


In this mixed-methods study, we use a postcolonial framework to investigate how state standards represent Indigenous histories and cultures. The research questions that guided this study include: (a) What is the frequency of Indigenous content (histories, cultures, current issues) covered in state-level U.S. History standards for K-12? (b) What is the difference between the frequency of inclusion of pre-1900 Indigenous content and post-1900 Indigenous content in U.S. History standards for K-12? (c) How do the standards depict Indigenous Peoples in U.S. History? U.S. History curriculum standards from all 50 states and the District of Columbia were analyzed using within-case analysis and quantified to represent each states depiction of Indigenous content. Findings reveal that standards overwhelmingly present Indigenous Peoples in a pre-1900 context and relegate the importance and presence of Indigenous Peoples to the distant past.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)68-101
Number of pages34
JournalTheory and Research in Social Education
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education
  • Sociology and Political Science


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