Topological structures based on controllable ferroelectric or ferromagnetic domain configurations offer the opportunity to develop microelectronic devices such as high-density memories. Despite the increasing experimental and theoretical insights into various domain structures (such as polar spirals, polar wave, polar vortex) over the past decade, manipulating the topological transformations of polar structures and comprehensively understanding its underlying mechanism remains lacking. By conducting an in-situ non-contact bias technique, here we systematically investigate the real-time topological transformations of polar structures in PbTiO3/SrTiO3 multilayers at an atomic level. The procedure of vortex pair splitting and the transformation from polar vortex to polar wave and out-of-plane polarization are observed step by step. Furthermore, the redistribution of charge in various topological structures has been demonstrated under an external bias. This provides new insights for the symbiosis of polar and charge and offers an opportunity for a new generation of microelectronic devices.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)