Mathematical modeling of batch bioethanol generation from carob extract in the suspended-cell stirred-tank bioreactor

Mustafa Germec, Mustafa Karhan, Ali Demirci, Irfan Turhan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


In this study, various functions were evaluated and utilized to forecast observed values and kinetic parameters of the batch ethanol fabrication from carob extract in the suspended-cell stirred tank reactor (SCSTR). The best model was detected with the model comparison parameters (root-mean-square-error [RMSE], mean-absolute-error [MAE], and R2). The results indicated that the model Stannard (ST) successfully predicted biomass production data (RMSE = 0.26 g L−1, MAE = 0.18 g L−1, and R2 = 0.9910), ethanol fabrication data (RMSE = 2.44 g L−1, MAE = 1.88 g L−1, and R2 = 0.9809), and sugar depletion data (RMSE = 2.82 g L−1, MAE = 2.17 g L−1 and R2 = 0.9938). Nevertheless, the lowest value of the objective function (Φ-factor) was also yielded as 0.041 using the model ST. Additionally, in the estimation of the kinetic data, the model ST also gave well-directed results. Besides, when an independent set of the observed values was utilized to confirm the mathematical functions, the satisfactory consequences were achieved in terms of both the experimental and kinetic values. Consequently, the model ST can work as a universal function in predicting observed values and kinetics of batch ethanol generation from carob extract in an SCSTR.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9021-9034
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Energy Research
Issue number11
StatePublished - Sep 1 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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