Mechanical properties of bioactive glasses, ceramics, glass-ceramics and composites: State-of-the-art review and future challenges

Gurbinder Kaur, Vishal Kumar, Francesco Baino, John C. Mauro, Gary Pickrell, Iain Evans, Oana Bretcanu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

190 Scopus citations


The repair and restoration of bone defects in orthopaedic and dental surgery remains a major challenge despite advances in surgical procedures and post-operative treatments. Bioactive glasses, ceramics, glass-ceramics and composites show considerable potential for such applications as they can promote bone tissue regeneration. This paper presents an overview of the mechanical properties of various bioactive materials, which have the potential for bone regeneration. It also identifies current strategies for improving the mechanical properties of these novel materials, as these are rarely ideal as direct replacements for human bone. For this reason bioactive organic-inorganic composites and hybrids that have tailorable mechanical properties are of particular interest. The inorganic component (bioactive glass, ceramic or glass-ceramic) can provide both strength and bioactivity, while the organic component can add structural reinforcement, toughness and processability. Another topic presented in this paper includes 3D porous scaffolds that act as a template for cell attachment, proliferation and bone growth. Mechanical limitations of existing glass and ceramic scaffolds are discussed, along with the relevant challenges and strategies for further improvement. Advantages and disadvantages of different bioactive materials are critically examined. This paper is focused on optimization of biomaterials properties, in particular mechanical properties and bioactivity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number109895
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering C
StatePublished - Nov 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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