Haloacetaldehydes (HAs) are the third prevalent group of disinfection by-products of great health concern. A bench-scale study was performed to investigate the formation and speciation of HAs in raw and treated waters after chlorination and ozonation-chlorination. Pre-ozonation resulted in enhanced HA formation during subsequent chlorination, and the HA yields from ozonation-chlorination were 1.66 and 1.63 times higher than that from chlorination of raw and treated waters. The mechanism about the increase of HA formation during ozonation-chlorination was systematically investigated in this study. The results showed that acetaldehyde formed after ozonation was the dominant precursor for the enhanced HA formation during subsequent chlorination. Increase in pH and chlorine dose increased HA formation during acetaldehyde chlorination. Based on the kinetic studies on the HA formation during acetaldehyde chlorination and the HA stabilities with and without free chlorine, it was found that chlorine was incorporated into the α-hydrogen in acetaldehyde to form a sequence of mono-, di- and tri-chloroacetaldehyde. During this process, these three chlorinated acetaldehydes would also undergo base-catalyzed hydrolysis through decarburization and dehalogenation pathways. This study elucidated that acetaldehyde formed after ozonation resulted in the increase of HA formation during subsequent chlorination. This study also revealed the formation pathway of HA during chlorination of acetaldehyde, which would help to minimize HA formation at drinking water plants.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- General Chemistry
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis