Medical imaging feasibility in body fluids using Markov chains

M. Kavehrad, A. D. Armstrong

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


A relatively wide field-of-view and high resolution imaging is necessary for navigating the scope within the body, inspecting tissue, diagnosing disease, and guiding surgical interventions. As the large number of modes available in the multimode fibers (MMF) provides higher resolution, MMFs could replace the millimeters-thick bundles of fibers and lenses currently used in endoscopes. However, attributes of body fluids and obscurants such as blood, impose perennial limitations on resolution and reliability of optical imaging inside human body. To design and evaluate optimum imaging techniques that operate under realistic body fluids conditions, a good understanding of the channel (medium) behavior is necessary. In most prior works, Monte-Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) algorithm has been used to analyze the channel behavior. This task is quite numerically intensive. The focus of this paper is on investigating the possibility of simplifying this task by a direct extraction of state transition matrices associated with standard Markov modeling from the MCRT computer simulations programs. We show that by tracing a photon's trajectory in the body fluids via a Markov chain model, the angular distribution can be calculated by simple matrix multiplications. We also demonstrate that the new approach produces result that are close to those obtained by MCRT and other known methods. Furthermore, considering the fact that angular, spatial, and temporal distributions of energy are inter-related, mixing time of Monte- Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) for different types of liquid concentrations is calculated based on Eigen-analysis of the state transition matrix and possibility of imaging in scattering media are investigated. To this end, we have started to characterize the body fluids that reduce the resolution of imaging [1].

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationOptical Imaging, Therapeutics, and Advanced Technology in Head and Neck Surgery and Otolaryngology
EditorsKrzysztof Izdebski, Justus F. Ilgner, Brian J. F. Wong
ISBN (Electronic)9781510605190
StatePublished - 2017
EventOptical Imaging, Therapeutics, and Advanced Technology in Head and Neck Surgery and Otolaryngology - San Francisco, United States
Duration: Jan 28 2017Jan 29 2017

Publication series

NameProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
ISSN (Print)1605-7422


OtherOptical Imaging, Therapeutics, and Advanced Technology in Head and Neck Surgery and Otolaryngology
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomaterials
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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