Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small lipid bilayer-delimited particles that are naturally released from cells into body fluids, and therefore can travel and convey regulatory functions in the distal parts of the body. EVs can transmit paracrine signaling by carrying over cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, interleukins (ILs), transcription factors, and nucleic acids such as DNA, mRNAs, microRNAs, piRNAs, lncRNAs, sn/snoRNAs, mtRNAs and circRNAs; these EVs travel to predecided destinations to perform their functions. While mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to improve healing and facilitate treatments of various diseases, the allogenic use of these cells is often accompanied by serious adverse effects after transplantation. MSC-produced EVs are less immunogenic and can serve as an alternative to cellular therapies by transmitting signaling or delivering biomaterials to diseased areas of the body. This review article is focused on understanding the properties of EVs derived from different types of MSCs and MSC–EV-based therapeutic options. The potential of modern technologies such as 3D bioprinting to advance EV-based therapies is also discussed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)