Method to reduce non-specific tissue heating of small animals in solenoid coils

Ananda Kumar, Anilchandra Attaluri, Rajiv Mallipudi, Christine Cornejo, David Bordelon, Michael Armour, Katherine Morua, Theodore L. Deweese, Robert Ivkov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Purpose: Solenoid coils that generate time-varying or alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) are used in biomedical devices for research, imaging and therapy. Interactions of AMF and tissue produce eddy currents that deposit power within tissue, thus limiting effectiveness and safety. We aim to develop methods that minimise excess heating of mice exposed to AMFs for cancer therapy experiments. Materials and methods: Numerical and experimental data were obtained to characterise thermal management properties of water using a continuous, custom water jacket in a four-turn simple solenoid. Theoretical data were obtained with method-of-moments (MoM) numerical field calculations and finite element method (FEM) thermal simulations. Experimental data were obtained from gel phantoms and mice exposed to AMFs having amplitude >50kA/m and frequency of 160kHz. Results: Water has a high specific heat and thermal conductivity, is diamagnetic, polar, and nearly transparent to magnetic fields. We report at least a two-fold reduction of temperature increase from gel phantom and animal models when a continuous layer of circulating water was placed between the sample and solenoid, compared with no water. Thermal simulations indicate the superior efficiency in thermal management by the developed continuous single chamber cooling system over a double chamber non-continuous system. Further reductions of heating were obtained by regulating water temperature and flow for active cooling. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the potential value of a contiguous layer of circulating water to permit sustained exposure to high intensity alternating magnetic fields at this frequency for research using small animal models exposed to AMFs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)106-120
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Hyperthermia
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cancer Research


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