Methodological issues in measuring crowding-related norms in outdoor recreation

Robert Manning, Steven Lawson, Peter Newman, Daniel Laven, William Valliere

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

69 Scopus citations


Based on theoretical and methodological similarities between research on recreation-related norms and contingent valuation, three methodological issues-question format, starting point bias, and information bias-are explored as they apply to measuring crowding-related norms of visitors to two national parks. Few statistically or substantively significant differences in crowding-related norms were found to be associated with these methodological issues. Study findings suggest that measures of crowding-related norms may be relatively "robust," and this may add weight to the "validity" of the theory and methods associated with crowding-related norms in outdoor recreation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)339-348
Number of pages10
JournalLeisure Sciences
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - Jul 2002

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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