Methodological Issues Relevant to Blinding in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Research

Thiru M. Annaswamy, Kegan Cunniff, John Ross Rizzo, Tahereh Naeimi, Dinesh Kumbhare, Mitchell Batavia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Blinding in research is important, and the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation poses special consideration owing to the patient populations and treatment methodologies used. Historically, blinding has been increasingly relevant to conducting good-quality research. The main reason to blind is to reduce bias. There are several strategies to blinding. At times, when blinding is not possible, alternatives to blinding include sham control and description of study and control groups. Illustrative examples of blinding used in physical medicine and rehabilitation research are described in this article, along with how to assess success and fidelity of blinding.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)636-644
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation

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