Microgeographic heterogeneity of border malaria during elimination phase, Yunnan Province, China, 2011-2013

Xin Xu, Guofa Zhou, Ying Wang, Yue Hu, Yonghua Ruan, Qi Fan, Zhaoqing Yang, Guiyun Yan, Liwang Cui

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


To identify township-level high-risk foci of malaria transmission in Yunnan Province, China, along the international border, we retrospectively reviewed data collected in hospitals and clinics of 58 townships in 4 counties during 2011-2013. We analyzed spatiotemporal distribution, especially hot spots of confirmed malaria, using geographic information systems and Getis-Ord Gi*(d) cluster analysis. Malaria incidence, transmission seasonality, and Plasmodium vivax:P. falciparum ratio remained almost unchanged from 2011 to 2013, but heterogeneity in distribution increased. The number of townships with confirmed malaria decreased significantly during the 3 years; incidence became increasingly concentrated within a few townships. High-/low-incidence clusters of P. falciparum shifted in location and size every year, whereas the locations of high-incidence P. vivax townships remained unchanged. All high-incidence clusters were located along the China-Myanmar border. Because of increasing heterogeneity in malaria distribution, microgeographic analysis of malaria transmission hot spots provided useful information for designing targeted malaria intervention during the elimination phase.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1363-1370
Number of pages8
JournalEmerging infectious diseases
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Epidemiology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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