Micropenis. I. Criteria, etiologies and classification

Peter Lee, T. Mazur, R. Danish, J. Amrhein, R. M. Blizzard, J. Money, C. J. Migeon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

193 Scopus citations


A micropenis is an abnormally small penis with a normal configuration. This finding constitutes a sign not a diagnosis. The etiologies may be classified as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, primary hypogonadism, androgen insensitivity, or idiopathic; among 45 patients, the respective percentages in these categories were 31, 24, 2, and 7% with 36% as yet undiagnosed. Various clinical syndromes may include a micropenis and can be classified in one of the etiologic categories. This paper provides the criteria for determining the presence of a micropenis. A phallic length which is 2.5 or more standard deviations below the mean should be considered as abnormal; for an infant of 0 to 5 months of age, the lower limit is 1.9 cm. The technique of penile measurement, determination of etiology, guidelines for sex of rearing and psychologic, surgical and medical management are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)156-163
Number of pages8
JournalJohns Hopkins Medical Journal
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1980

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Medicine


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