Microscale optoelectronic infrared-to-visible upconversion devices and their use as injectable light sources

He Ding, Lihui Lu, Zhao Shi, Dan Wang, Lizhu Li, Xichen Li, Yuqi Ren, Changbo Liu, Dali Cheng, Hoyeon Kim, Noel C. Giebink, Xiaohui Wang, Lan Yin, Lingyun Zhao, Minmin Luo, Xing Sheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

81 Scopus citations


Optical upconversion that converts infrared light into visible light is of significant interest for broad applications in biomedicine, imaging, and displays. Conventional upconversion materials rely on nonlinear light-matter interactions, exhibit incidence-dependent efficiencies, and require high-power excitation. We report an infrared-to-visible upconversion strategy based on fully integrated microscale optoelectronic devices. These thin-film, ultraminiaturized devices realize near-infrared (∼810 nm) to visible [630 nm (red) or 590 nm (yellow)] upconversion that is linearly dependent on incoherent, low-power excitation, with a quantum yield of ∼1.5%. Additional features of this upconversion design include broadband absorption, wide-emission spectral tunability, and fast dynamics. Encapsulated, freestanding devices are transferred onto heterogeneous substrates and show desirable biocompatibilities within biological fluids and tissues. These microscale devices are implanted in behaving animals, with in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrating their utility for optogenetic neuromodulation. This approach provides a versatile route to achieve upconversion throughout the entire visible spectral range at lower power and higher efficiency than has previously been possible.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6632-6637
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number26
StatePublished - Jun 26 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General


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