The high gelatinization temperature (GT) of millet starch prevents the usage of infusion or step mashes as an effective means to generate fermentable sugars (FS) in brewing because the malt amylases lack thermostability at GT. Here, we investigate processing modifications to determine if millet starch can be efficiently degraded below GT. We determined that producing finer grists through milling did not introduce enough granule damage to markedly change gelatinization characteristics, though there was improved liberation of the endogenous enzymes. Alternatively, exogenous enzyme preparations were added to investigate their ability to degrade intact granules. At the recommended dosages (0.625 μL/g malt), significant FS concentrations were observed, although at lower concentrations and with a much-altered profile than possible with a typical wort. When exogenous enzymes were introduced at high (10×) addition rates, significant losses of granule birefringence and granule hollowing were observed well below GT, suggesting these exogenous enzymes can be utilized to digest millet malt starch below GT. The exogenous maltogenic α-amylase appears to drive the loss of birefringence, but more research is needed to understand the observed predominate glucose production.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Chemistry
- Polymers and Plastics
- Organic Chemistry