The role of in situ stirring under microwave-hydrothermal (M-H) conditions on the synthesis of barium titanate was investigated for the first time by powder X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Stirring under M-H conditions in the temperature range of 150-200 °C led to enhanced crystallization of Ba titanate as revealed by yields compared to the static condition. In addition, stirring led to smaller and more uniform crystals under M-H conditions compared to those crystallized without stirring. Powder X-ray diffraction revealed the formation of only cubic polymorph of Ba titanate at or below 200 °C in 4 h with or without in situ stirring under M-H conditions. These results show that stirring is an important parameter during M-H synthesis of nanophase Ba titanate.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Ceramics and Composites
- Process Chemistry and Technology
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry