Mobility-on-demand (MOD) Projects: A study of the best practices adopted in United States

Ronik Ketankumar Patel, Roya Etminani-Ghasrodashti, Sharareh Kermanshachi, Jay Michael Rosenberger, Ann Foss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


The growth of mobility on demand (MOD) services has raised partnership opportunities between transit agencies and transportation network companies (TNCs) in the US. However, there is still a need to recognize how MOD programs confront different challenges during the implementation of pilot projects, and to what extent they are successful in promoting mobility efficiency and providing multiple mobility options. This study aims to evaluate the potential opportunities of public-private partnerships for MOD planning while presenting an overview of the challenges and lessons learned during the implementation of the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Sandbox Program projects. Following a comprehensive review of MOD's background, we identify the goals and scopes of the 11 FTA Sandbox Program projects. The programs are classified into four categories: service to people with disabilities, first/last mile solutions, mobile application targeting one non-transit mode, and mobile application to integrate public and private transportation services on one app. Emphasizing particular FTA Sandbox Program projects, we determine the challenges and technical lessons learned during the implementation of the programs. Finally, this study identifies fundamental factors to a well-integrated public transit system that uses app-based on-demand technology. Our findings provide new insights, which could reinforce future partnerships among public-private transportation services.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100601
JournalTransportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives
StatePublished - Jun 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Automotive Engineering
  • Transportation
  • General Environmental Science
  • Urban Studies
  • Management Science and Operations Research

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