Model predictive control (MPC) applied to a simplified model, magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (MNPH) treatment process

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Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (MNPH) has emerged as a promising cancer treatment that complements conventional ionizing radiation and chemotherapy. MNPH involves injecting iron-oxide nanoparticles into the tumor and exposing it to an alternating magnetic field (AMF). Iron oxide nanoparticles produce heat when exposed to radiofrequency AMF due to hysteresis loss. Minimizing the non-specific heating in human tissues caused by exposure to AMF is crucial. A pulse-width-modulated AMF has been shown to minimize eddy-current heating in superficial tissues. This project developed a control strategy based on a simplified mathematical model in MATLAB SIMULINK® to minimize eddy current heating while maintaining a therapeutic temperature in the tumor. A minimum tumor temperature of 43 [°C] is required for at least 30 [min] for effective hyperthermia, while maintaining the surrounding healthy tissues below 39 [°C]. A model predictive control (MPC) algorithm was used to reach the target temperature within approximately 100 [s]. As a constrained MPC approach, a maximum AMF amplitude of 36 [kA/m] and increment of 5 [kA/m/s] were applied. MPC utilized the AMF amplitude as an input and incorporated the open-loop response of the eddy current heating in its dynamic matrix. A conventional proportional integral (PI) controller was implemented and compared with the MPC performance. The results showed that MPC had a faster response (30 [s]) with minimal overshoot (1.4 [%]) than PI controller (115 [s] and 5.7 [%]) response. In addition, the MPC method performed better than the structured PI controller in its ability to handle constraints and changes in process parameters.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number045012
JournalBiomedical Physics and Engineering Express
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Nursing

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