The need for sustainable power generation has increased interest in the use of hydrothermal fluids for industrial applications. New high-enthalpy geothermal systems and biowaste-to-fuel processes are two relevant examples that employ supercritical fluids which require an in-depth understanding of complex chemical reactions occurring near the supercritical temperature of water (374 °C). As these processes operate in thermodynamic regimes that are not currently covered by a standard molar Gibbs energy of formation model, only empirical fits for single reaction systems are available which limit the use of multi-component phase equilibria calculations that are standard practice for less extreme environments. Here, we advance a standard molar Gibbs energy of formation model able to operate in these otherwise inaccessible thermodynamic states to include species needed for key mineral solubility systems and ion association reactions. This work extends a model based on molecular statistical thermodynamics (MST) into four new systems (Na3PO4-H2O, LiOH-H2O, KOH-H2O, and BaSO4-H2O) by extending the model to cover 10 new species. For each of these systems, model predictions were consistently within the experimental uncertainties for the new systems covered. A breakdown of MST contributions to the model revealed that electrostatic and hard sphere contributions were key to reproducing density dependencies of standard molar Gibbs energy of formation values around the critical point of water.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Materials Chemistry