Tool chatter is envisaged as a technique to create undulations on fabricated biomedical components. Herein, a-priori designed topographies were fabricated using modulate assisted machining of oxygen free high conductivity copper. Subsequently, underpinnings of microstructure evolution in this machining process were characterized using electron back scattered diffraction based orientation imaging microscopy. These underpinnings were related to the unsteady mechanical states present during modulated assisted machining, this numerically modeled using data obtained from simpler machining configurations. In this manner, relationships between final microstructural states and the underlying mechanics were found. Finally, these results were discussed in the context of unsteady mechanics present during tool chatter, it was shown that statistically predictable microstructural outcomes result during tool chatter.