Modeling Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Observations with an Off-axis Jet Emission

N. Fraija, A. Galvan-Gamez, B. Betancourt Kamenetskaia, M. G. Dainotti, S. Dichiara, P. Veres, R. L. Becerra, A. C.Caligula do E. S. Pedreira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are fascinating extragalactic objects. They represent a fantastic opportunity to investigate unique properties not exhibited in other sources. Multiwavelength afterglow observations from some short- and long-duration GRBs reveal an atypical long-lasting emission that evolves differently from the canonical afterglow light curves favoring the off-axis emission. We present an analytical synchrotron afterglow scenario and the hydrodynamical evolution of an off-axis top-hat jet decelerated in a stratified surrounding environment. The analytical synchrotron afterglow model is shown during the coasting, deceleration (off- and on-axis emission), and post-jet break decay phases, and the hydrodynamical evolution is computed by numerical simulations showing the time evolution of the Doppler factor, the half-opening angle, the bulk Lorentz factor, and the deceleration radius. We show that numerical simulations are in good agreement with those derived with our analytical approach. We apply the current synchrotron model and successfully describe the delayed nonthermal emission observed in a sample of long and short GRBs with evidence of off-axis emission. Furthermore, we provide constraints on the possible afterglow emission by requiring the multiwavelength upper limits derived for the closest Swift-detected GRBs and promising gravitational-wave events.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number189
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume940
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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