Modeling macro- and microstructures of gas-metal-arc welded HSLA-100 steel

Z. Yang, T. Debroy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

102 Scopus citations


Fluid flow and heat transfer during gas-metal-arc welding (GMAW) of HSLA-100 steel were studied using a transient, three-dimensional, turbulent heat transfer and fluid flow model. The temperature and velocity fields, cooling rates, and shape and size of the fusion and heat-affected zones (HAZs) were calculated. A continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram was computed to aid in the understanding of the observed weld metal microstructure. The computed results demonstrate that the dissipation of heat and momentum in the weld pool is significantly aided by turbulence, thus suggesting that previous modeling results based on laminar flow need to be re-examined. A comparison of the calculated fusion and HAZ geometries with their corresponding measured values showed good agreement. Furthermore, 'finger' penetration, a unique geometric characteristic of gas-metal-arc weld pools, could be satisfactorily predicted from the model. The ability to predict these geometric variables and the agreement between the calculated and the measured cooling rates indicate the appropriateness of using a turbulence model for accurate calculations. The microstructure of the weld metal consisted mainly of acicular ferrite with small amounts of bainite. At high heat inputs, small amounts of allotriomorphic and Widmanstatten ferrite were also observed. The observed microstructures are consistent with those expected from the computed CCT diagram and the cooling rates. The results presented here demonstrate significant promise for understanding both macro- and microstructures of steel welds from the combination of the fundamental principles from both transport phenomena and phase transformation theory.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)483-493
Number of pages11
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1999

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys


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