Modern definition of bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics

Adam Shearer, Maziar Montazerian, John C. Mauro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Bioactive glasses (BGs) and glass-ceramics (BGCs) have become a diverse family of materials being applied for treatment of many medical conditions. The traditional understanding of bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics pins them to bone-bonding capability without considering the other fields where they excel, such as soft tissue repair. We attempt to provide an updated definition of BGs and BGCs by comparing their structure, processing, and properties to those of other biomaterials. The proposed modern definition allows for consideration of all applications where the BGs and BGCs are currently used in the clinic and where the future of these promising biomaterials will grow. The new proposed definition of a bioactive glass is “a non-equilibrium, non-crystalline material that has been designed to induce specific biological activity”. The proposed definition of a bioactive glass-ceramic is “an inorganic, non-metallic material that contains at least one crystalline phase within a glassy matrix and has been designed to induce specific biological activity.” BGs and BGCs can bond to bone and soft tissues or contribute to their regeneration in many applications such as orthopedic, dentistry and wound repair. They can also deliver a specified concentration of inorganic therapeutic ions, heat for magnetic-induced hyperthermia or laser-induced phototherapy, radiation for brachytherapy, and drug delivery to combat pathogens and cancers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number122228
JournalJournal of Non-Crystalline Solids
StatePublished - May 15 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Materials Chemistry


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