Modified single crystals for high-power underwater projectors

Nevin P. Sherlock, Richard J. Meyer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Underwater electroacoustic projectors using single crystals based on the lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMNT) composition were investigated. The large electromechanical coupling coefficient (k33 > 0.90) and piezoelectric coefficient (d33 > 1500 pC/N) of PMNT have been demonstrated to improve transducer bandwidth and source level relative to conventional piezoelectric ceramics. The low mechanical quality factor (Q M < 200) and low temperature stability (TRT < 95°C) of PMNT, however, limit its utility in high-power, high-duty-cycle applications. Use of modified single crystals was shown to result in transducers which exhibit up to 5 dB improvement in source level over PMNT when operated at resonance. Compared with a PZT4 transducer, these modified crystals offer similar source level and power handling capability at resonance, but the available bandwidth is doubled and a 6 dB improvement in maximum source level is achieved when driven off resonance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6217577
Pages (from-to)1285-1291
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Instrumentation
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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