Monitoring of a machining process using kernel principal component analysis and kernel density estimation

Wo Jae Lee, Gamini P. Mendis, Matthew J. Triebe, John W. Sutherland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Scopus citations


Tool wear is one of the consequences of a machining process. Excessive tool wear can lead to poor surface finish, and result in a defective product. It can also lead to premature tool failure, and may result in process downtime and damaged components. With this in mind, it has long been desired to monitor tool wear/tool condition. Kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) is proposed as an effective and efficient method for monitoring the tool condition in a machining process. The KPCA-based method may be used to identify faults (abnormalities) in a process through the fusion of multi-sensor signals. The method employs a control chart monitoring approach that uses Hotelling’s T2-statistic and Q-statistic to identify the faults in conjunction with control limits, which are computed by kernel density estimation (KDE). KDE is a non-parametric technique to approximate a probability density function. Four performance metrics, abnormality detection rate, false detection rate, detection delay, and prediction accuracy, are employed to test the reliability of the monitoring system and are used to compare the KPCA-based method with PCA-based method. Application of the proposed monitoring system to experimental data shows that the KPCA based method can effectively monitor the tool wear.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1175-1189
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Intelligent Manufacturing
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jun 1 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Artificial Intelligence


Dive into the research topics of 'Monitoring of a machining process using kernel principal component analysis and kernel density estimation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this