Morphometric analysis of Macaca arctoides and M. thibetana in relation to other macaque species

Ruliang Pan, N. G. Jablonski, C. Oxnard, L. Freedman

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8 Scopus citations


As a first step in reviewing the classification of the two stump-tailed macaque species, Macaca arctoides and M. thibetana, as compared with other species of the genus Macaca, 72 linear dental and cranial variables of 11 macaque species were examined by morphometric analyses. The results indicate that the two stump-tailed species are the largest of the macaques and although rather similar overall, they exhibit significant differences in the pattern of variation in most of the five skull regions as shown by Principal Components and Canonical Variate Analyses. Euclidean Distances based on Canonical Variate scores indicate that the females of M. arctoides and M. thibetana are more widely separated than eight other pairs of macaque species, and that the separations of the respective males are greater than those of three other pairs of species. These findings are consistent with FOODEN'S classification of the stump-tailed macaques as two separate species (FOODEN, 1976; FOOPEN et al., 1985). The present results suggest, as other researchers have proposed on the basis of external features, biochemistry and genetics, that the two stump-tailed macaque species and M. assamensis are closely related. The results also tentatively imply associations with M. fuscata and M. sylvanus but these require further study. The findings have implications for the assessment of the various Chinese Pleistocene macaque fossils.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)519-537
Number of pages19
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1998

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Animal Science and Zoology


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