Multi-Site and multi-ionization of Sn in the doping of BaTiO 3

Chung Eun Lee, Clive A. Randall, Doo Young Kim, Sang Hyuk Kim

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4 Scopus citations


This article considers the diverse substitutional effects of the Sn cations in the BaTiO3 lattice and its impact on the electrical conduction as a function of A/B stoichiometry, oxygen partial pressure, and temperature. High-density specimens were fabricated in the different oxygen partial pressures to control the valence state of Sn ion. Specifically, the nonstoichiometric materials were sintered in a low pO2 atmosphere (10-14 atm at 1320°C) and in a high pO2 atmosphere (10-0.21 atm at 1320°C), respectively. It is found that Sn occupying the Ti-site acts as an acceptor dopant, and the electronic conductivity varies from a n-type to p-type transition, with increasing oxygen activity as mostly expected. However, there is an unusual case noted with Sn doping the A-site where the conductivity, σ, is invariant at high pO2's, i.e., σ ∼ pO2m with m ≈ 0 in the high pO2 regime. The variation of the conductivity is explained by a valence changing of Sn ion from +2 to +3 to +4 with increasing oxygen partial pressure, and we model this data across all conditions within a self-consistent defect chemistry model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)513-518
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the American Ceramic Society
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry


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