National Socialism with Fler? German hip hop from the right

Michael T. Putnam, John T. Littlejohn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


This article examines the recent rise of right-wing terminology in mainstream German hip-hop lyrics and the reaction of the German media to these songs. We argue that the inclusion of these controversial lyrics was a deliberate effort on the part of the individual artists to titillate their audiences and ultimately produce revenue. The media soon "took the bait" and became unwilling collaborators in this effort. Here we expose potential reasons for the sudden increase in usage of nationalist references in German hip hop; although true "right-wing" hip hop does indeed exist there, these references to National Socialism seem to function as an articulation of a new German identity constructed through a complex engagement with American popular culture and its own past.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)453-468
Number of pages16
JournalPopular Music and Society
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2007

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cultural Studies
  • Music


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