Nationwide Healthcare Expenditures among Hypertensive Individuals with Stroke: 2003-2014

Alain Lekoubou, Kinfe G. Bishu, Bruce Ovbiagele

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background: Of all the various clinical entities, hypertension is arguably most strongly linked to the occurrence of stroke. However, the impact of stroke on health-care expenditures in patients with hypertension has not been previously evaluated. Methods: We analyzed data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, 2003-2014 data. Adults aged 18 years or greater were included in this analysis. We used a 2-part model (adjusting for demographic, comorbidity, and time) to estimate the incremental health-care expenditures incurred by stroke among individuals with hypertension. Results: On average, $4057 more dollars (adjusted incremental health-care expenditure) was spent on individuals with hypertension plus stroke versus no history of stroke. Overall unadjusted mean medical expenditure in those with a comorbid diagnosis of stroke was twice as high as in those without a diagnosis of stroke ($16,668 versus 8374; P <.001). Inpatient expenditures (37.4%), outpatient expenditures, and prescription expenditures (nearly 23% each) accounted for almost 80% of the total mean unadjusted direct expenditures. Annual average unadjusted aggregate costs among individuals with hypertension and stroke were $98.3 billion, while annual adjusted aggregate incremental costs were higher by $24 billion among patients with stroke versus those without stroke. Conclusion: Among individuals with hypertension in the United States, those who have experienced a stroke incur tens of billions of dollars in higher health-care expenditures compared with those without known stroke. Greater emphasis on stroke prevention strategies and cost control initiatives (wherever appropriate) are warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1760-1769
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Rehabilitation
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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