OBJECTIVES: Factors common to socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods, such as low availability of transportation, may limit access to restorative care services for critical illness survivors. Our primary objective was to evaluate whether neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with an increased disability burden after critical illness. Our secondary objective was to determine if the effect differed for those discharged to the community compared with those discharged to a facility. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study with linked Medicare claims data. SETTING: United States. PATIENTS: One hundred ninety-nine older adults, contributing to 239 ICU admissions, who underwent monthly assessments of disability for 12 months following hospital discharge in 13 different functional tasks from 1998 to 2017. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Neighborhood disadvantage was assessed using the area deprivation index, a 1-100 ranking evaluating poverty, housing, and employment metrics. Those living in disadvantaged neighborhoods (top quartile of scores) were less likely to self-identify as non-Hispanic White compared with those in more advantaged neighborhoods. In adjusted models, older adults living in disadvantaged neighborhoods had a 9% higher disability burden over the 12 months following ICU discharge compared with those in more advantaged areas (rate ratio, 1.09; 95% Bayesian credible interval, 1.02-1.16). In the secondary analysis adjusting for discharge destination, neighborhood disadvantage was associated with a 14% increase in disability burden over 12 months of follow-up (rate ratio, 1.14; 95% credible interval, 1.07-1.21). Disability burden was 10% higher for those living in disadvantaged neighborhoods and discharged home as compared with those discharged to a facility, but this difference was not statistically significant (interaction rate ratio, 1.10; 95% credible interval, 0.98-1.25). CONCLUSIONS: Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with a higher disability burden in the 12 months after a critical illness. Future studies should evaluate barriers to functional recovery for ICU survivors living in disadvantaged neighborhoods.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine