Neural network model of heat and fluid flow in gas metal arc fillet welding based on genetic algorithm and conjugate gradient optimisation

A. Kumar, T. DebRoy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Although numerical calculations of heat transfer and fluid flow can provide detailed insights into welding processes and welded materials, these calculations are complex and unsuitable in situations where rapid calculations are needed. A recourse is to train and validate a neural network, using results from a well tested heat and fluid flow model to significantly expedite calculations and ensure that the computed results conform to the basic laws of conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Seven feedforward neural networks were developed for gas metal arc (GMA) fillet welding, one each for predicting penetration, leg length, throat, weld pool length, cooling time between 800°C and 500°C, maximum velocity and peak temperature in the weld pool. Each model considered 22 inputs that included all the welding variables, such as current, voltage, welding speed, wire radius, wire feed rate, arc efficiency, arc radius, power distribution, and material properties such as thermal conductivity, specific heat and temperature coefficient of surface tension. The weights in the neural network models were calculated using the conjugate gradient (CG) method and by a hybrid optimisation scheme involving the CG method and a genetic algorithm (GA). The neural network produced by the hybrid optimisation model produced better results than the networks based on the CG method with various sets of randomised initial weights. The CG method alone was unable to find the best optimal weights for achieving low errors. The hybrid optimisation scheme helped in finding optimal weights through a global search, as evidenced by good agreement between all the outputs from the neural networks and the corresponding results from the heat and fluid flow model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)106-119
Number of pages14
JournalScience and Technology of Welding and Joining
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2006

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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