Non-enzymatic detection of glucose in neutral solution using PBS-treated electrodeposited copper-nickel electrodes

Lindsey Goodnight, Derrick Butler, Tunan Xia, Aida Ebrahimi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Transition metals have been explored extensively for non-enzymatic electrochemical detection of glucose. However, to enable glucose oxidation, the majority of reports require highly alkaline electrolytes which can be damaging to the sensors and hazardous to handle. In this work, we developed a non-enzymatic sensor for detection of glucose in near-neutral solution based on copper-nickel electrodes which are electrochemically modified in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Nickel and copper were deposited using chronopotentiometry, followed by a two-step annealing process in air (Step 1: At room temperature and Step 2: At 150 °C) and electrochemical stabilization in PBS. Morphology and chemical composition of the electrodes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry was used to measure oxidation reaction of glucose in sodium sulfate (100 mM, pH 6.4). The PBS-Cu-Ni working electrodes enabled detection of glucose with a limit of detection (LOD) of 4.2 nM, a dynamic response from 5 nM to 20 mM, and sensitivity of 5.47 ± 0.45 μA cm-2/ log10(mole.L-1)at an applied potential of 0.2 V. In addition to the ultralow LOD, the sensors are selective toward glucose in the presence of physiologically relevant concentrations of ascorbic acid and uric acid spiked in artificial saliva. The optimized PBS-Cu-Ni electrodes demonstrate better stability after seven days storage in ambient compared to the Cu-Ni electrodes without PBS treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number409
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Biotechnology
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Clinical Biochemistry


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