Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

Tullika Garg, Bernard Bochner

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Urothelial carcinoma manifests along two divergent pathways: non-muscle invasive and muscle-invasive disease. Non-muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma is further classified as high-risk and low-risk disease. Low-risk disease is associated with low rates of recurrence and progression. In contrast, high-risk tumors have high rates of progression to muscle-invasive disease. Molecular differences characterize low- and high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancers and are related to their divergent clinical courses. It is critical to classify a patient's cancer as either high- or low-risk disease in order to direct discussions about treatment and prognosis. All patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer should undergo a complete TURBT. Perioperative intravesical chemotherapy is typically indicated following TURBT. Patients with low-risk disease may undergo surveillance or a full course of intravesical therapy. Patients with high-risk disease generally undergo adjuvant intravesical treatment with either an immunomodulator or chemotherapeutic agent in order to prevent recurrence and possibly limit their progression risk. Radical cystectomy plays a role in managing high-risk disease that is resistant to intravesical therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEssentials and Updates in Urologic Oncology (2 Volume Set)
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Number of pages26
ISBN (Print)9781620816493
StatePublished - 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Medicine


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