Noninvasive ultrasound transdermal insulin delivery and glucose monitoring using a low-profile cymbal array

E. J. Park, J. Luis, R. J. Meyer, M. V. Pishko, N. B. Smith

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Scopus citations


Recent studies have shown that ultrasound mediated transdermal drug delivery offers promising results for noninvasive drug administration. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate ultrasonic transdermal insulin delivery and in vivo sensing glucose with a novel, low-profile ultrasound array based on the cymbal transducer. As a practical device, the array composed of circular cymbal transducers was thin (< 7mm) and weighed less than 22g. Using this array on hyperglycemic rats, our previous experiments demonstrated that blood glucose would decrease by 296.7 mg/dL from 60 minutes of ultrasound exposure. With a similar intensity, our goal was to evaluate the feasibility of insulin delivery with large animals (rabbits and pigs) and noninvasively determine the glucose level of hyperglycemic rats with the array system. Ultrasound was exposed for 60 minutes at Isptp=100 mW/cm2. With the same procedure, a preliminary experiment of large animal was on a pig (12 kg) at Isptp=50 mW/cm2. For the control experiments in insulin delivery, the blood glucose level varied little from the initial baseline. However, for the ultrasound and insulin exposure experiment, the glucose level was found to decrease by 132.6 mg/dL in 60 minutes and continued to decrease by 208.1 mg/dL in 90 minutes. From the preliminary pig experiment, the blood glucose level decreased by 120 mg/dL in 90 minutes. To noninvasively determine the glucose level, ultrasound exposure experiments with an electrochemical glucose biosensor were performed on hyperglycemic rats. After 20 minutes ultrasound exposure, the biosensor was placed at the exposure area to determine the concentration of glucose diffused through the skin. The glucose level of rats determined by the biosensor was 408 mg/dL which was very similar to the results of conventional glucose meter reading 396.7 mg/dL. Recently, a rectangular cymbal transducer was developed to obtain a larger sonication area without an increase in array size. Preliminary experiments were performed on hyperglycemic rabbits to evaluate the new transducer design. The results showed that the rectangular array has enhanced performance compared to the circular array. All results of ultrasound application indicate the feasibility of using a low-cost, light-weight cymbal array for enhanced noninvasive transdermal insulin delivery and glucose monitoring.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationTHERAPEUTIC ULTRASOUND
Subtitle of host publication5th International Symposium on Therapeutic Ultrasound
Number of pages5
StatePublished - May 8 2006
EventTHERAPEUTIC ULTRASOUND: 5th International Symposium on Therapeutic Ultrasound - Boston, MA, United States
Duration: Oct 27 2005Oct 29 2005

Publication series

NameAIP Conference Proceedings
ISSN (Print)0094-243X
ISSN (Electronic)1551-7616


OtherTHERAPEUTIC ULTRASOUND: 5th International Symposium on Therapeutic Ultrasound
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityBoston, MA

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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