Noninvasive urinary metabolomic profiling identifies diagnostic and prognostic markers in lung cancer

Ewy A. Mathé, Andrew D. Patterson, Majda Haznadar, Soumen K. Manna, Kristopher W. Krausz, Elise D. Bowman, Peter G. Shields, Jeffrey R. Idle, Philip B. Smith, Katsuhiro Anami, Dickran G. Kazandjian, Emmanuel Hatzakis, Frank J. Gonzalez, Curtis C. Harris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

130 Scopus citations


Lung cancer remains the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide, yet there is currently a lack of diagnostic noninvasive biomarkers that could guide treatment decisions. Small molecules (<1,500 Da) were measured in urine collected from 469 patients with lung cancer and 536 population controls using unbiased liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Clinical putative diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers were validated by quantitation and normalized to creatinine levels at two different time points and further confirmed in an independent sample set, which comprises 80 cases and 78 population controls, with similar demographic and clinical characteristics when compared with the training set. Creatine riboside (IUPAC name: 2-{2-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy- 5-(hydroxymethyl)-oxolan-2-yl]-1-methylcarbamimidamido}acetic acid), a novel molecule identified in this study, and N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) were each significantly (P < 0.00001) elevated in non-small cell lung cancer and associated with worse prognosis [HR = 1.81 (P = 0.0002), and 1.54 (P = 0.025), respectively]. Creatine riboside was the strongest classi fier of lung cancer status in all and stage I-II cases, important for early detection, and also associated with worse prognosis in stage I-II lung cancer (HR = 1.71, P = 0.048). All measurements were highly reproducible with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.82 to 0.99. Both metabolites were significantly (P < 0.03) enriched in tumor tissue compared with adjacent nontumor tissue (N = 48), thus revealing their direct association with tumor metabolism. Creatine riboside and NANA may be robust urinary clinical metabolomic markers that are elevated in tumor tissue and associated with early lung cancer diagnosis and worse prognosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3259-3270
Number of pages12
JournalCancer Research
Issue number12
StatePublished - Jun 15 2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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