Nonionic Sc3N@C80 Dopant for Efficient and Stable Halide Perovskite Photovoltaics

Kai Wang, Xiaoyang Liu, Rong Huang, Congcong Wu, Dong Yang, Xiaowen Hu, Xiaofang Jiang, James C. Duchamp, Harry Dorn, Shashank Priya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


One major challenge in the commercialization of halide perovskite solar cells is the device instability against moisture. Efficient perovskite solar cells usually incorporate the ionic dopants within the charge transfer material to secure their electrical conductivity. Typical ionic dopants are hygroscopic, resulting in significant moisture adsorption and accelerated perovskite degradation. Herein, we report a nonionic dopant, Sc3N@C80, consisting of a hydrophobic fullerene cage that encapsulates the metal salt to achieve a moisture resistive and highly electrically conductive hole transfer layer (HTL). The direct electronic transaction between Sc3N@C80 and spiro-OMeTAD renders a drastically improved conductivity and a lower Fermi-level of the HTL to minimize the Schottky barrier. The hydrophobicity of Sc3N@C80 also decreases the moisture wettability. Perovskite solar cells using the Sc3N@C80-doped HTL exhibit an efficiency surge from 18.15 to 20.77% (champion cell exhibiting 21.09%) and improved device stability (survival efficiency over 17% after continuous illumination for 800 h). The bifunctional hydrophobic Sc3N@C80 dopant provides a pathway toward efficient and stable perovskite photovoltaics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1852-1861
Number of pages10
JournalACS Energy Letters
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 9 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Materials Chemistry


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