Research into the use of nonlinear ultrasonic guided waves for nondestructive evaluation is expanding at a high rate because of the great potential benefit that they possess for early detection of material degradation. However, development of inspection and testing strategies is complicated because (i) the underlying physical principles are complex, (ii) there is a broad spectrum of possible solutions but only a limited number that have been shown to be effective, and (iii) the nonlinearity is weak and thus its measurement is challenging. This Tutorial aims to provide a foundation for researchers and technology-transitioners alike, to advance the application of nonlinear ultrasonic guided waves and ultimately transform how the service lives of structural systems are managed. The Tutorial focuses on the physical principles of nonlinear ultrasonic guided waves leading to the so-called internal resonance conditions that provide a means for selecting primary waves that generate cumulative secondary waves. To detect material degradation, we are primarily interested in nonlinearity stemming from the material itself, which is represented as hyperelastic. For the special case of plates, internal resonance points have been identified and case studies are presented to illustrate some of the applications. The Tutorial has one new result not published in a research paper; finite element simulation of energy transfer from shear-horizontal primary waves to symmetric Lamb waves at the second harmonic.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physics and Astronomy(all)