Nonstoichiometric Salt Intercalation as a Means to Stabilize Alkali Doping of 2D Materials

Yuanxi Wang, Vincent H. Crespi, Marvin L. Cohen, Amir Nourhani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Although doping with alkali atoms is a powerful technique for introducing charge carriers into physical systems, the resulting charge-transfer systems are generally not air stable. Here we describe computationally a strategy towards increasing the stability of alkali-doped materials that employs stoichiometrically unbalanced salt crystals with excess cations (which could be deposited during, e.g., in situ gating) to achieve doping levels similar to those attained by pure alkali metal doping. The crystalline interior of the salt crystal acts as a template to stabilize the excess dopant atoms against oxidation and deintercalation, which otherwise would be highly favorable. We characterize this doping method for graphene, NbSe2, and Bi2Se3 and its effect on direct-to-indirect band gap transitions, 2D superconductivity, and thermoelectric performance. Salt intercalation should be generally applicable to systems which can accommodate this "ionic crystal"doping (and particularly favorable when geometrical packing constraints favor nonstoichiometry).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number266401
JournalPhysical review letters
Issue number26
StatePublished - Dec 23 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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