Normal and Abnormal Development of the Spine

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

40 Scopus citations


Congenital malformations of the vertebrae are best understood in the context of our understanding of normal vertebral development. The author provides an in-depth discussion of normal vertebral development from gastrulation through vertebral ossification and provides multiple examples of how various disorders of vertebral development could lead to a variety of observed vertebral malformations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)415-429
Number of pages15
JournalNeurosurgery clinics of North America
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2007

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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