Normative advice to campus crime victims: Effects of gender, age, and alcohol

R. Barry Ruback, Kim S. Ménard, Maureen C. Outlaw, Jennifer N. Shaffer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


Three studies investigated the appropriateness of calling the police as a function of crime, victim, and subject factors. In particular, the studies focused on whether and how the victim's consumption of alcohol affected normative advice to report the crime, as opposed to other options. Across the three studies, subjects viewed reporting as more appropriate for female victims, for victims who were 21 or older, and for victims who had not been drinking. In addition, females were more likely than males to believe reporting to the police was appropriate whereas males were more likely than females to favor some type of private action. Subjects viewed reporting as particularly inappropriate when the victim was underage and had been drinking. Results suggest that, because of the perceived stigma attached to victims who have been drinking, even serious victimizations may go unreported.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)381-396
Number of pages16
JournalViolence and victims
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 1 1999

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Health(social science)
  • Law


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