We describe a unique microsporidian species that infects the green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris; the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys; the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus; and the dusky stink bug, Euschistus tristigmus. All life stages are unikaryotic, but analysis of the consensus small subunit region of the ribosomal gene places this microsporidium in the genus Nosema, which historically has been characterized by diplokaryotic life stages. It is also characterized by having the reversed arrangement of the ribosomal gene (LSU –ITS- SSU) found in species within the “true Nosema” clade. This microsporidium is apparently Holarctic in distribution. It is present in H. halys both where it is native in Asia and where it is invasive in North America, as well as in samples of North American native C. hilaris collected prior to the introduction of H. halys from Asia. Prevalence in H. halys from mid-Atlantic, North America in 2015–2016 ranged from 0.0% to 28.3%, while prevalence in C. hilaris collected in Illinois in 1970–1972 ranged from 14.3% to 58.8%. Oral infectivity and pathogenicity were confirmed in H. halys and C. hilaris. Morphological, ultrastructural, and ecological features of the microsporidium, together with a molecular phylogeny, establish a new species named Nosema maddoxi sp. nov.
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