Cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of the medical management of colorectal cancer (CRC). Research over the last two decades has led to a molecular understanding of the oncogenic mechanisms involved in CRC and has contributed to the rational development of antineoplastics that target these mechanisms. During carcinogenesis, genetic changes often occur in molecules that play key functional roles in cancer such as cell proliferation, angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell death and immune-mediated destruction of cancer cells. Here, we review novel antineoplastics that are approved or in development for CRC that target molecules associated with genetic aberrations in CRC. Some of these targeted antineoplastics have proven effective against other solid tumors and hold promise in treating CRC whereas others are now routinely used in combination with cytotoxic agents. This article reviews antineoplastics that target genetic changes in CRC, their antitumor mechanisms, and their stage of development.