Nucleation and Formation Mechanisms of Hydrothermally Derived Barium Titanate

Jeffrey A. Kerchner, J. Moon, R. E. Chodelka, A. A. Morrone, James H. Adair

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Barium titanate powders were produced using either an amorphous hydrous Ti gel or anatase precursor in a barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)2) solution via a hydrothermal technique in order to discern the nucleation and formation mechanisms of BaTiO3 as a function of Ti precursor characteristics. Isothermal reaction of the amorphous Ti hydrous gel and Ba(OH)2 suspension is believed to be limited by a phase boundary chemical interaction. In contrast, the proposed BaTiO3 formation mechanism from the anatase and Ba(OH)2 mixture entails a dissolution and recrystallization process. BaTiO3 crystallite nucleation, studied using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, was observed at relatively low temperatures (38°C) in the amorphous hydrous Ti gel and Ba(OH)2 mixture. Additional solution conditions required to form phase pure crystallites include a CO2-free environment, temperature >70°C and solution pH ≥13.4. Analysis of reaction kinetics at 75°C was performed using Hancock and Sharp's modification of the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami approach to compare observed microstructural evolution by transmission electron microscopy (I).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)106-119
Number of pages14
JournalACS Symposium Series
StatePublished - 1998

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering


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