Numerical modeling of keyhole dynamics in laser welding

Wen Hai Zhang, Jun Zhou, Hai Lung Tsai

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Mathematical models and the associated numerical techniques have been developed to study the following cases: 1) the formation and collapse of a keyhole, 2) the formation of porosity and its control strategies, 3) laser welding with filler metals, and 4) the escape of zinc vapor in laser welding of galvanized steel. The simulation results show that the formation of porosity in the weld is caused by two competing mechanisms: one is the solidification rate of the molten metal and the other is the speed that molten metal backfills the keyhole after laser energy is terminated. The models have demonstrated that porosity can be reduced or eliminated by adding filler metals, controlling laser tailing power, or applying an electromagnetic force during keyhole collapse process. It is found that a uniform composition of weld pool is difficult to achieve by filler metals due to very rapid solidification of the weld pool in laser welding, as compared to that in gas metal arc welding.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)180-185
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - 2002
EventFirst International Symposium on High-Power laser Macroprocessing - Osaka, Japan
Duration: May 27 2002May 31 2002

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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