Nutritional properties of raw and cooked Azolla caroliniana Willd., an aquatic wild edible plant

Daniel Winstead, Francesco Di Gioia, Marjorie Jauregui, Michael Jacobson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Azolla caroliniana Willd. is an understudied wild edible plant native to the Eastern United States. Other species of Azolla have been used across the world for several thousand years as a livestock feed and as “green manure.” The use of Azolla for human consumption is thought to be limited by its high total polyphenolic content (TPC). However, the TPC and nutritional content of A. caroliniana has not been thoroughly studied. We measured TPC and other nutrients before and after cooking methods designed to lower TPC. We found that TPC was 4.26 g gallic acid equivalent (GAE) kg−1 DW in raw A. caroliniana. All cooking methods significantly lowered TPC. Protein content was 19% DW, and the apparent protein digestibility was 78.45%. Our yield was 173 g FW m−2 day−1 and 5.53 g DW m−2 day−1. Azolla caroliniana is a high-yielding plant with great potential for cultivation and domestication.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2050-2060
Number of pages11
JournalFood Science and Nutrition
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science

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