Obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease: A joint expert review from the Obesity Medicine Association and the National Lipid Association 2024

Harold Edward Bays, Carol F. Kirkpatrick, Kevin C. Maki, Peter P. Toth, Ryan T. Morgan, Justin Tondt, Sandra Michelle Christensen, Dave L. Dixon, Terry A. Jacobson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: This joint expert review by the Obesity Medicine Association (OMA) and National Lipid Association (NLA) provides clinicians an overview of the pathophysiologic and clinical considerations regarding obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. METHODS: This joint expert review is based upon scientific evidence, clinical perspectives of the authors, and peer review by the OMA and NLA leadership. RESULTS: Among individuals with obesity, adipose tissue may store over 50% of the total body free cholesterol. Triglycerides may represent up to 99% of lipid species in adipose tissue. The potential for adipose tissue expansion accounts for the greatest weight variance among most individuals, with percent body fat ranging from less than 5% to over 60%. While population studies suggest a modest increase in blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels with excess adiposity, the adiposopathic dyslipidemia pattern most often described with an increase in adiposity includes elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), increased non-HDL-C, elevated apolipoprotein B, increased LDL particle concentration, and increased small, dense LDL particles. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity increases CVD risk, at least partially due to promotion of an adiposopathic, atherogenic lipid profile. Obesity also worsens other cardiometabolic risk factors. Among patients with obesity, interventions that reduce body weight and improve CVD outcomes are generally associated with improved lipid levels. Given the modest improvement in blood LDL-C with weight reduction in patients with overweight or obesity, early interventions to treat both excess adiposity and elevated atherogenic cholesterol (LDL-C and/or non-HDL-C) levels represent priorities in reducing the risk of CVD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e320-e350
JournalJournal of Clinical Lipidology
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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