Oblique-angle deposition: Evolution from sculptured thin films to bioreplication

Raúl J. Martín-Palma, Akhlesh Lakhtakia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


The versatile oblique-angle deposition (OAD) technique, which is based on traditional vapor-deposition processes, allows the growth of thin films comprising one-, two- and three-dimensional complex nanostructures. The OAD technique has evolved into the conformal-evaporated-film-by-rotation (CEFR) and the modified CEFR (mod-CEFR) techniques, which have been successfully used to coat biotemplates for possible replication. Finally, the Nano4Bio technique - which is the sequential combination of the mod-CEFR technique, electroforming, plasma ashing and stamping/casting - is emerging as a robust and industrially scalable manufacturing process to fabricate bioreplicas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9-12
Number of pages4
JournalScripta Materialia
StatePublished - Mar 2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys


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