Observing students in classroom settings: A review of seven coding schemes

Robert J. Volpe, James C. DiPerna, John M. Hintze, Edward S. Shapiro

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

123 Scopus citations


A variety of coding schemes are available for direct observational assessment of student classroom behavior. These instruments have been used for a number of assessment tasks including screening children in need of further evaluation for emotional and behavior problems, diagnostic assessment of emotional and behavior problems, assessment of classroom ecology in the formulation of academic interventions, and monitoring the progress of medical, psychosocial, and academic interventions. Although this method of behavioral assessment has a high degree of face validity, it is essential to consider the psychometric properties of available coding schemes to select the appropriate instrument for a given assessment. This article reviews the structure, content, training requirements, and available psychometric properties of seven available direct observation codes. Recommendations for the use of each code and future directions for research in observational assessment are provided.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)454-474
Number of pages21
JournalSchool Psychology Review
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2005

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


Dive into the research topics of 'Observing students in classroom settings: A review of seven coding schemes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this